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Sunday, November 22, 2009

What is Septicemia ?

[Extracted from Family Health GuideCo.UK]

An Overview

Septicemia is the presence of bacteria in blood. It is commonly known as blood poisoning or bacteremia. It is an acute infection caused by the presence of certain microorganisms and their toxic products in the bloodstream.

The human body has many microorganisms on the skin and in the intestines, which are usually beneficial and pose no threat to good health. But when these organisms enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, they can progress to an overwhelming infection. Septicemia is one such infection which contaminates your blood with various bacteria. If not treated appropriately, the infected blood may contaminate other organs or tissues of the body like the brain, liver or kidney, which can be fatal.

If neglected in the early stages, septicemia can rapidly progress to a septic shock. According to the University of Virginia Health System, septicemia that progresses to septic shock has a death rate as high as 50%, depending on the type of bacteria involved. It is therefore a serious medical emergency and requires urgent medical treatment.

What is Septicemia ?

Causes of Septicemia

Septicemia is most commonly caused by cuts and wounds that are infected. These include surgical wounds, burns, miscarriage, diabetic wounds and any internal injury or bleeding due to accidents. It can also arise from infections within the body including infections in the lungs, abdomen and the urinary tract.

Symptoms of Septicemia

Septicemia is characterized by spiking fevers and chills, rapid breathing, increased heart rate and an outward appearance of being toxically ill. Septicemia, if not attended to immediately, can rapidly progress to shock. A person in a state of septic shock has a low body temperature (hypothermia), drop in blood pressure, confusion, and blood-clotting abnormalities.

Diagnosis & Treatment of Septicemia

Diagnosis of septicemia includes physical examination and blood tests. Septicemia must be treated in a hospital, as it requires immediate attention and intensive care. It can be prevented by appropriate treatment of the primary infection. Also vaccination against certain infections can reduce the risk of septicemia. For example the Haemophilus Influenza B (HIB) vaccination, which is a part of the recommended childhood immunization schedule for children, is proven to reduce the number of cases of Haemophilus septicemia.

Several factors can cause septicemia

* Cuts or wounds that are infected: These include cuts caused during surgical procedures for handling infected tissues or any invasive diagnostic procedures, intravenous lines, urinary catheters, and knife or bullet wounds. Burn injuries, especially third degree burns, may also lead to septicemia. The larger the burn, the greater is the risk of infection.

* Internal Injuries: These include stomach injuries, intestinal rupture, gall bladder disease and rupture of the appendix or spleen. In the presence of intestinal perforations, bowel contents spill into other parts of the body and the blood is instantly exposed to high and dangerous levels of bacteria, causing septicemia almost immediately. In women, a miscarriage can also result in septicemia.

* Medical Conditions: Certain existing disease conditions can make you more vulnerable to septicemia. People with diabetes are at a higher risk since they lack the ability to heal from cuts. Others at high risk include patients with burns, chronic cardiac, liver or kidney disorders, malnutrition and excessive/long-term antibiotic use.

* Oral cavity: Infections of the mouth or teeth, if not treated using antibiotics, can cause septicemia.

Symptoms of Septicemia

Septicemia is a serious, life-threatening infection that worsens rapidly. The signs and symptoms are as follows :

* Sudden onset of spiking fevers with chills.

* Rapid breathing with increased heart rate.

* Toxic appearance with a feeling of impending doom.

These symptoms, if not controlled at the earliest, will rapidly progress to a septic shock.

Septic shock

Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs when an uncontrolled/untreated infection leads to low blood pressure and low blood flow. Major organs like your brain, heart, kidneys, and liver may not work properly and may also fail.

The symptoms of a septic shock include the following.

* Cold, clammy, pale and cyanotic (blue) appearance.

* Changes in mental state such as irritability, lethargy, anxiety, agitated, unresponsive and comatose condition.

* Blood-clotting abnormalities characterized by red spots on the skin
(petechiae), large, flat, purplish lesions that do not blanch when pressed (ecchymosis) and decreased or absent blood flow (gangrene).

* Decreased or no urine output.

Diagnosis of Septicemia

The diagnosis of septicemia includes physical examination and blood tests. You doctor will conduct a clinical examination to detect the following :

* Low blood pressure.

* Low body temperature or fever.

* Signs of any underlying disease that may have lead to sepsis such as cellulitis (infection of internal tissues of the skin), epiglottitis (inflammation at the base of the tongue), meningitis (inflammation of membranes around the brain and spinal cord), and pneumonia.

Following the physical examination, your doctor will run a few confirmatory tests. These include :

Microbiological analysis

* Blood culture

* Urine culture

* CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) culture

* Culture of skin lesion if present

Blood tests

* CBC (Complete Blood Count)

* Platelet count

* Clotting studies 1. Prothrombin time (PT) 2. Partial prothrombin time (PTT) 3. Fibrinogen levels

* Arterial Blood Gas (ABG): This is a test that measures the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood to determine how well your lungs are working.

Treatment of Septicemia

Septicemia needs immediate attention and the patient is admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). Reversal of septicemia or septic shock is essentially dependent on aggressive treatment of the underlying infection. The treatment will vary according to the severity of septicemia and the underlying disease.

The first step of the treatment involves control and maintenance of blood pressure levels. Fluids and medicines are administered intravenously to maintain the blood pressure. The patient may also be put on oxygen therapy. If needed and if possible, the source of the infection is surgically removed or drained. If clotting abnormalities are present, they are treated by administration of plasma, clotting factors or drugs.

Until the precise cause of septicemia is identified, the infection is treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of organisms. When the specific organism responsible for the infection has been identified, the patient is given specific antibiotics during treatment.

Complications

Septicemia when associated with some organisms such as meningococci can lead to :

* Irreversible shock

* Adrenal collapse

* Bleeding disorders (disseminated intravascular coagulopathy)

* Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome: This is the failure of the adrenal gland caused by bleeding. It is caused by severe meningococcal infection and is characterized by profound shock. It can be fatal if not treated immediately. • Adult Respiratory

* Distress Syndrome (ARDS)

Wednesday, November 18, 2009

Bee and Wasp Stings

[Extracted from Medicine.Net.Com]

Insect stings overview

Bee and wasp stings are common causes of medical problems. Bees and wasps, together with fire ants, are all related insects that belong to the Hymenoptera order. Bee and wasp stings can cause significant reactions, ranging from localized pain and swelling to serious and even potentially fatal conditions. At least 40 deaths occur each year in the U.S. as a result of bee or wasp stings.

What are the types of wasps ?

There are over 25,000 species of wasps found throughout the world. Some of the most common wasps include :

* The yellow jacket and hornet, both of which live in groups, or colonies, in temperate climates.

* Yellow jackets, which have black and yellow stripes on the abdomen, form underground nests.

* Hornets are predominantly black with some yellow markings on the head and thorax. Hornets form paper-like nests that are attached to trees, bushes, or buildings.

What are the types of bees ?

Bees include the honey bee, the so-called Africanized honey bee (also known as "killer bee"), and the bumble bee. Bumble bees are large, furry-appearing bees that fulfill the beneficial role of pollinating many plants. Honeybees, also active plant pollinators, are found all over the world. While honey bees are not usually aggressive, they will sting if bothered or threatened. Because their wings flap so rapidly, their presence is associated with a buzzing sound. Although the venom of the "killer bees" found in the Western and Southern U.S. is no more potent than that of regular honeybees, their behavior may be more aggressive. Killer bees may chase victims when agitated and may also attack in greater numbers, thereby increasing the chances of a severe reaction to their stings. Overall, there are more than 20,000 species of bees found worldwide.

What are causes of Bee and Wasp stings ?

Most stings arise because an insect perceives a threat to their colony. Bees and wasps commonly sting because an intruder has neared the hive or nest. Loud noises (such as lawn mowers), bright or dark colors, and certain perfumes or perfumed body products may also encourage stings. Some types of insect venom contain pheromones, which attract other members of the colony and induce them to sting.

When bees or wasps sting an individual, they inject venom under the skin of their victim.

* Honey bees, including killer bees, have barbed stingers that tear off when they try to fly away after stinging, so these bees die after the sting and thus can sting only one time. In this case the stinger and venom sac typically remain embedded in the skin of the victim.

* Bumble bees, hornets, yellow jackets, and wasps are able to sting multiple times, since their stingers are smooth and can be easily withdrawn from the victim's skin.

Bee and wasp venoms vary according to species but typically contain toxic components as well as antigens that stimulate an immune response.

What are the symptoms of a bee or wasp sting?

Insect stings may produce four types of reactions, each with characteristic symptoms as below:

1. Local reactions are the most common type of reaction to a bee or wasp sting. Symptoms include pain, swelling, warmth, and redness at the site of the sting. Itching may also be present. These symptoms begin immediately following the sting and often last for only a few hours. Depending upon the type of insect, the stinging apparatus may still be visible in the affected skin. Large local reactions have a greater degree of swelling that can last for up to a week, sometimes associated with nausea and/or tiredness. These reactions are not allergic reactions.

2. Systemic (body-wide) allergic reactions occur in people who have produced a type of antibody known as IgE antibody against the same insect venom as a result of a previous sting. Systemic allergic reactions are estimated to occur in 0.3% to 3% of stings. Symptoms include hives and flushing of the skin and difficulty breathing due to swelling of the pharynx and epiglottis and narrowing of the bronchial passages. The reaction may vary in severity from mild skin hives to life-threatening reactions. The most severe immunologic reactions are known as anaphylaxis and occur more commonly in males and in people under 20 years of age. In severe reactions, hypotension (low blood pressure), circulatory disturbances, and breathing difficulty can progress to fatal cardiorespiratory arrest. Most people who develop anaphylactic reactions have experienced previous stings with few problems. Once an individual has experienced an anaphylactic reaction, the risk of having a recurrent episode is about 60%.

3. Toxic reactions are a direct result of toxins in the venom rather than the body's immune response. Most often these are due to multiple simultaneous stings that introduce an unusually large amount of venom into the body. Symptoms can include fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, fainting or dizziness, and convulsions. Hives, rash, and skin symptoms are less common in toxic reactions than in allergic reactions. Because bee and wasp venom are strong stimulants of the immune response, people who have experienced toxic reactions may produce antibodies to the venom and be at risk for future systemic anaphylactic reactions to stings.

4. Delayed reactions are uncommon and occur even days to weeks after the sting. These reactions constitute less than 0.3% of all reactions to insect stings. The individual's own medical history and condition may play a role in determining whether delayed reactions occur. Symptoms can vary widely and may include inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), the nerves (neuritis), blood vessels (vasculitis), or kidneys (nephritis) as well as blood clotting disturbances. Serum sickness is a type of delayed reaction that occurs a week to 10 days after a sting and may cause itching, rash, fever, joint pain, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes.

When should I call a doctor about a bee or wasp sting ?

Most bee and wasp stings can be treated at home, but some cases require medical attention. If there is any suspicion at all that a person is having a systemic allergic reaction, seek immediate emergency medical assistance. Signs that a person may be having a systemic reaction include widespread hives or rash, wheezing, difficulty breathing, and swelling in the mouth and throat areas. If a person is stung by an insect whose sting has previously caused an anaphylactic reaction, he or she should also access emergency medical care even if no symptoms are present.

You should also seek medical care if any of the following conditions are present :

* If you have received multiple stings

* If the sting is located in the eye or eye area

* If symptoms of infection (pus, drainage, fever, increasing pain and redness) develop

* If the initial symptoms worsen or persist for longer than 24-48 hours

* If a sting produces severe symptoms in young children, the elderly, or those with chronic medical problems

How is a bee or wasp sting diagnosed ?

In most cases the victim or an observer will have witnessed the sting. Depending upon the type of insect, the stinging apparatus may be found embedded in the skin, but this is not the case with wasps and some types of bees. The characteristic symptoms for each type of reaction along with the history of a sting are typically sufficient to establish a diagnosis.

What is the treatment for a bee or wasp sting ?

Treatment for a mild allergic reaction

* First aid for a bee sting involves cleansing the site, immediate removal of the stinging apparatus (if present), and application of ice or cold packs to the affected area.

* Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl) may be taken to relieve itching and burning. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil) may be taken for pain relief.

* If the sting site becomes infected, your doctor may prescribe a course of antibiotics.

* If it has been more than 10 years since your last tetanus booster immunization, get a booster within the next few days.

Treatment for a mild allergic reaction (such as a rash without any breathing difficulty) usually involves the administration of antihistamine medications and sometimes steroid medications to reduce inflammation.

Treatment for anaphylactic reaction

The treatment of choice for life-threatening anaphylactic reactions is epinephrine. Emergency medical treatments may also include steroid and antihistamine medications and insertion of a breathing tube. Intravenous fluids and medications to support cardiovascular function may also be required. Treatment may be begun at the scene by emergency medical personnel and continued in the hospital.

Doctors can prescribe an allergy kit containing self-administered epinephrine (Epi-Pen) for persons at risk for a severe allergic reaction, including those with known allergy to bee or wasp stings. These self-administered injectable epinephrine treatments can be life-saving in many cases. It is important to have kits readily available at home, in the car, at work, etc. and to know how to use them properly.

Immunotherapy is sometimes recommended for those with a history of severe allergic reactions to stings. In this treatment, a series of shots ("allergy shots") are used to provide low-dose exposure to venom. This type of treatment may significantly reduce the chance of future severe allergic reactions.

What are the complications of a bee or wasp sting ?

Complications can include the development of infection at the sting site requiring treatment with antibiotics. Systemic allergic reactions can be life-threatening, as discussed above.

How can I prevent a bee or wasp sting?

You can take preventive measures to decrease your chance of being stung by an insect. Effective prevention tips include the following:

* Avoid, and do not disturb, hives and nests

* When participating in outdoor activities, avoid

fragranced body products, bright colors, and sugary drinks

* Wear long sleeves and long pants outdoors

* Do not walk barefoot outdoors

* Do not swat at swarming bees or wasps

* Exercise caution around fruit trees and blooming flowers

* Keep garbage away from outdoor activity areas


Bee and Wasp Sting At A Glance

* Bees and wasp stings may produce local reactions or systemic (body-wide) allergic reactions.

* Localized pain, redness, and swelling are the most common reaction to a sting.

* Severe allergic reactions to stings are known as anaphylactic reactions and may be life-threatening.

* Treatment of a local reaction involves cleansing, removal of the stinging apparatus if present, and application of ice packs.

* Epinephrine is the treatment of choice for severe allergic reactions.

* A self-administered injectable form of epinephrine is available for individuals at risk for anaphylactic reactions.

Causes of Bad Breath !

[Extracted from Medicine.Net.Com]

Bad breath, medically called halitosis, can result from poor oral hygiene habits and may be a sign of other health problems. Bad breath can also be made worse by the types of foods you eat and other unhealthy lifestyle habits.

How Does What You Eat Affect Breath ?

Basically, all the food you eat begins to be broken down in your mouth. As foods are digested and absorbed into your bloodstream, they are eventually carried to your lungs and given off in your breath. If you eat foods with strong odors (such as, garlic or onions), brushing and flossing - even mouthwash - merely covers up the odor temporarily. The odor will not go away completely until the foods have passed through your body.

Why Do Poor Habits Cause Bad Breath ?

If you don't brush and floss your teeth daily, food particles can remain in your mouth, which promotes bacteria growth between teeth, around the gums, and on the tongue. This causes bad breath. In addition, odor-causing bacteria and food particles can cause bad breath if dentures are not properly cleaned.

Smoking or chewing tobacco-based products can also cause bad breath, stain teeth, reduce your ability to taste foods, and irritate gum tissues.

What Health Problems Are Associated With Bad Breath ?

Persistent bad breath or a bad taste in your mouth may be warning signs of gum disease. Gum disease is caused by the buildup of plaque on teeth. The bacteria cause toxins to form in the mouth, which irritate the gums. If periodontal disease continues untreated, it can damage the gums and jawbone.

Other dental causes of bad breath include poorly fitting dental appliances, yeast infections of the mouth and dental caries.

The medical condition dry mouth (also called xerostomia) can also cause bad breath. Saliva is necessary to moisten and cleanse the mouth by neutralizing acids produced by plaque and washing away dead cells that accumulate on the tongue, gums, and cheeks. If not removed, these cells decompose and can cause bad breath. Dry mouth may be caused by the side effects of various medications, salivary gland problems, or continuous breathing through the mouth.

Many other diseases and illnesses may cause bad breath. Here are some to be aware of: respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia or bronchitis, chronic sinus infections, postnasal drip, diabetes, chronic acid reflux, liver or kidney problems.

What Can I Do to Prevent Bad Breath ?

Bad breath can be reduced or prevented if you :

1. Practice good oral hygiene. Brush twice a day with fluoride toothpaste to remove food debris and plaque. Brush your teeth after you eat (keep a toothbrush at work or school to brush after lunch). Don't forget to brush your tongue, too. Replace your toothbrush every 2 to 3 months. Use floss or an interdental cleaner to remove food particles and plaque between your teeth once a day. Dentures should be removed at night and cleaned thoroughly before being placed in your mouth the next morning.

2. See your dentist regularly - at least twice a year. He or she will conduct an oral examination and professional teeth cleaning and will be able detect and treat periodontal disease, dry mouth, or other problems that may be the cause of bad mouth odor.

3. Stop smoking/chewing tobacco-based products. Ask your dentist for tips on kicking the habit.

4. Drink lots of water. This will keep your mouth moist. Chewing gum (preferably sugarless) or sucking on candy (preferably sugarless) also stimulates the production of saliva, which helps wash away food particles and bacteria.

5. Keep a log of the foods you eat. If you think the foods that you eat may be causing your bad breath, record what you eat so that you can determine which foods may be contributing to the problem. Bring the log to your dentist to review. Similarly, make a list of the medications you take. Some medications may play a role in creating mouth odors.

Who Treats Bad Breath ?

In most cases, your dentist can treat the cause of bad breath. If your dentist determines that your mouth is healthy and that the odor is not of oral origin, you may be referred to your family doctor or to a specialist to determine the odor source and treatment plan. If the odor is due to gum disease, for example, your dentist can either treat the disease or refer you to a periodontist, a dentist who specializes in treating gum conditions.

What Products Can I Use to Eliminate Bad Breath ?

You can buy a number of mouthwashes over-the-counter that claim to eliminate bad breath. However, keep in mind that many of these mouthwashes generally provide only a temporary way to mask unpleasant mouth odor. There are, however, several antiseptic mouth-rinse products available that instead of simply masking breath odor kill the germs that cause bad breath. Ask your dentist about which product is best for you.

What is Neutropenia ?

[Extracted from Medicine.Net.Com]

"Neutropenia" is a condition in which the number of neutrophils in the bloodstream is decreased. Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell also known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes or PMNs. Neutropenia affects the body's ability to fight off infections.

White blood cells are also known as Leukocytes. There are five major types of white blood cells :

1. Basophils,

2. Eosinophils,

3. Lymphocytes (T-cells and B-cells),

4. Monocytes, and

5. Neutrophils.

Some white blood cells, called granulocytes, are filled with microscopic granules that are little sacs containing Enzymes (compounds that digest microorganisms). Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are all granulocytes and are part of the innate immune system with somewhat nonspecific, broad-based activity. They do not respond exclusively to specific antigens, as do the lymphocytes (B-cells and T-cells).

Neutrophils contain enzymes that help the cell kill and digest microorganisms it has engulfed by a process known as phagocytosis. The mature neutrophil has a segmented nucleus (it is often called a 'seg' or 'poly'), while the immature neutrophil has a band-shape nucleus (it is called a band). Neutrophils are made in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream. The neutrophil has a life-span of about three days.

How is Neutropenia defined ?

The white blood cell count (WBC) is the number of white blood cells in a volume of blood. The normal range for the WBC varies slightly among laboratories but is generally between 4,300 and 10,800 cells per microliter or cubic millimeter (cmm). The WBC can also be referred to as the leukocyte count and can be expressed in international units as 4.3 x 109to 10.8 x 109 cells per liter. The percentage of the different types of white blood cells in the WBC is called the WBC differential.

The absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is determined by the product of the white blood cell count (WBC) and the fraction of neutrophils among the white blood cells as determined by the WBC differential analysis. For example, if the WBC is 10,000 per microliter and 70% are neutrophils, the ANC would be 7,000 per microliter.

An ANC of less than 1500 per microliter (1500/microL) is the generally accepted definition of neutropenia. Neutropenia is sometimes further classified as :

* mild if the ANC ranges from 1000-1500/microL,

* moderate with an ANC of 500-1000/microL, and

* severe if the ANC is below 500/microL.

Some medical terms may be used synonymously with neutropenia, even though their precise definitions are different.

* Leukopenia refers to a reduced number of white blood cells in general, while granulocytopenia refers to a decreased number of all the granulocyte-type blood cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils).

* Since neutrophils normally far outnumber the other types of granulocytes, this term is sometimes used to refer to neutropenia.

* Finally, agranulocytosis literally refers to a complete absence of all granulocytes, but this term is sometimes used to refer to severe neutropenia.

What are the clinical consequences of Neutropenia ?

Neutropenia results in an increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. The degree of risk depends upon the cause and severity of the neutropenia, the underlying medical condition of the patient, and the presence or absence of bone marrow reserves for the production of neutrophils.

The most common type of infections seen in neutropenic patients are caused by bacteria normally found on the skin (such as Staphylococcus aureus) or from the gastrointestinal and urinary tract. Fungal infections are also more frequent in patients with neutropenia. The infections may be limited to certain areas of the body (commonly the oral cavity, genital area, and skin) or may spread via the bloodstream to the lungs and other organs in severe, prolonged neutropenia.

What causes Neutropenia ?

Neutropenia can be present (though it is relatively uncommon) in normal healthy individuals, notably in some persons of African or Arabic descent and and Yemenite Jews. Neutropenia may arise as a result of decreased production of neutrophils, destruction of neutrophils after they are produced, or pooling of neutrophils (accumulation of the neutrophils out of the circulation).

Neutropenia may arise as a result of numerous medical conditions :

* Infections (more commonly viral infections, but also bacterial or parasitic infections). Examples include: HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, Epstein Barr virus (EBV);

* Medications that may damage the bone marrow or neutrophils, including cancer chemotherapy;

* Vitamin deficiencies (megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency);

* Diseases of the bone marrow such as leukemias, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, myelofibrosis;

* Radiation therapy;

* Congenital (inborn) disorders of bone marrow function or of neutrophil production, for example, Kostmann syndrome;

* Autoimmune destruction of neutrophils (either as a primary condition or associated with another disease such as Felty's syndrome) or from drugs stimulating the immune system to attack the cells

* Hypersplenism, which refers to the increased sequestration and/or destruction of blood cells by the spleen.

How is Neutropenia diagnosed ?

Neutropenia is diagnosed by a blood cell count performed on a sample of blood removed from a vein. To determine the specific cause of neutropenia in a given situation, other tests may be required. Sometimes a bone marrow biopsy may be required to diagnose the specific cause of neutropenia.

How is Neutropenia treated ?

Treatment of neutropenia is based upon the underlying cause, severity, and the presence of associated infections or symptoms as well as the overall health status of the patient. Obviously, treatment must also be directed toward any underlying disease process. Treatments that directly address neutropenia may include (note that all of these treatments may not be appropriate in a given setting):

* antibiotic and/or antifungal medications to help fight infections;

* administration of white blood cells growth factors (such as recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim) in some cases of severe neutropenia;

* granulocyte transfusions; or

* corticosteroid therapy or intravenous immune globulin for some cases of immune-mediated neutropenia.

Preventive measures may also be implemented in neutropenic patients to limit risk of infections. These measures might include strict attention to hand washing, use of private rooms, or in some cases, use of gloves, gowns, and/or face masks by caregivers.


Neutropenia At A Glance

* Neutropenia is a condition in which the number of Neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the bloodstream is decreased, affecting the body's ability to fight off infections.

* Neutropenia is defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of less than 1500 per microliter (1500/microL)

* Neutropenia may be caused by or associated with numerous medical conditions

* Most infections that occur as a result of neutropenia are due to bacteria that are normally present on the skin or in the gastrointestinal or urinary tract.

* Treatment depends upon the cause and severity of he condition as well as the underlying disease state responsible for the neutropenia.