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Wednesday, September 29, 2010

What is ACTOS ? [In treatment for Diabetes]

 [Extracted from the webpage of]

What is ACTOS ?
  • ACTOS is a once-a-day prescription medication for type 2 diabetes that, along with healthy eating and physical activity, helps your body control blood sugar (glucose) levels.  
  • ACTOS makes the cells in your body more sensitive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows the cells in your body to use blood sugar for energy.
  • When the cells are more sensitive to insulin, the sugar that’s in your blood can pass more easily into the cells of your body where it’s really needed. So instead of remaining in the blood, where sugar can build up to dangerous levels, it passes into the cells and your blood sugar levels go down.

  • ACTOS can be used by itself or in combination with certain other diabetes medications (sulfonylureas, metformin, or insulin) when your necessary efforts at healthy eating and physical activity do not control your blood sugar levels.

  • ACTOS may improve HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides without consistent changes in LDL (bad) cholesterol or total cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, ACTOS should not be substituted for cholesterol medicine.
ACTOS is a member of the type of oral diabetes prescription medications called thiazolidinediones (THIGH-ah-ZO-li-deen-DYE-owns; TZDs). These medications help reduce insulin resistance, which is one of the major problems in type 2 diabetes. Some of the benefits of therapy with ACTOS are :

  • With diet and exercise, lowers blood sugar by helping your body use its own insulin more effectively.
  • Convenient, once-a-day pill can be taken anytime.
  • Can be taken with or without food.
  • ACTOS may improve HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides without consistent changes in LDL (bad) cholesterol or total cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, ACTOS should not be substituted for cholesterol medicine.
  • Has not been associated with stomach upset when used alone.
  • Can be used alone or in combination with certain other diabetes medicines such as sulfonylureas, metformin, or insulin. Taken alone, ACTOS is not likely to cause hypoglycemia (low blood sugar levels). However, if you take ACTOS with insulin or sulfonylureas, you may be at increased risk for hypoglycemia. Talk to your doctor about the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.
  • ACTOS is available in three different dose levels so you and your health professional have more treatment options to consider.

  • ACTOS is also available in convenient combination tablets :

    • ACTOplus met combines ACTOS and metformin in one tablet.
    • Duetact combines ACTOS and glimepiride in one tablet.

  • ACTOS can often begin working right away, although it may take several weeks to see the full change.
The major underlying problems in type 2 diabetes are insulin resistance in muscle and fat, decreased insulin production by the pancreas, and increased sugar production by the liver. Other concerns include lipid problems, such as increased triglyceride levels (blood fats), low levels of HDL (good cholesterol), and high levels of LDL (bad cholesterol). Gastrointestinal (stomach) and kidney function are additional considerations.
The effect of these lipid changes has not been determined.

ACTOS and blood sugar (glucose)
The main goal of type 2 diabetes treatment is to keep your blood sugar level within a target range. The American Diabetes Association recommends the following blood sugar goals for people with diabetes :

  • Before meals : Your premeal blood glucose should be between 70 mg/dL and 130 mg/dL.
  • After meals : Your highest postmeal (1 to 2 hours after eating) blood glucose should be less than 180 mg/dL.
  • Your average blood sugar for the last 2–3 months (A1C) : Your A1C should be less than 7%.
Reasons for high blood sugar levels
Healthy eating and physical activity are always essential to help meet these goals, but despite your best efforts, your blood sugar could end up out of control due to one or more of the following factors :

  • Stress or illness.
  • Change in diet.
  • Limited physical activity.
  • Need for medication or adjustment of medication.
  • Forgetting to take diabetes medication as prescribed.
People with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin, but either their body doesn’t respond to insulin’s action (it’s resistant) or there isn’t enough insulin. ACTOS, along with healthy eating and physical activity, helps to lower your blood sugar by decreasing insulin resistance.

The major underlying problems in type 2 diabetes are insulin resistance in muscle and fat, decreased insulin production by the pancreas, and increased sugar production by the liver. Other concerns include lipid problems, such as increased triglyceride levels (blood fats), low levels of HDL (good cholesterol), and high levels of LDL (bad cholesterol). Gastrointestinal (stomach) and kidney function are additional considerations.
While ACTOS may provide some lipid benefits, ACTOS is not intended as a substitute for cholesterol medications. The effect of these lipid changes has not been determined.

ACTOS, cholesterol, and blood fats (triglycerides)

Low levels of HDL (good) cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides are often associated with type 2 diabetes. Cholesterol is a fatty substance that can be found in the body. The body needs cholesterol for making hormones and building cell walls. This combination of low HDL levels and high triglyceride levels can lead to health complications.

Fats in the blood

There are three types of fat in your blood :

  • LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol is known as the “bad cholesterol” because it is the source of harmful fatty buildup in blood vessels.

  • HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol is often called “good cholesterol” because it helps prevent cholesterol buildup in blood vessels by carrying cholesterol back to the liver, where it can be eliminated.

  • Triglycerides are a form of fat carried through the bloodstream.

ACTOS has a positive change on HDL cholesterol and triglycerides

ACTOS may have a positive change on HDL (good) cholesterol and triglycerides (blood fats) without consistent changes in LDL (bad) cholesterol or total cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes. ACTOS has been shown to :

  • Increase HDL cholesterol.
  • Decrease triglycerides.
  • Have no consistent effect on LDL or total cholesterol.
While ACTOS may provide some lipid benefits, ACTOS is not intended as a substitute for cholesterol medications. The effect of these lipid changes has not been determined.

If you have high cholesterol, you should ask your doctor what steps you can take to lower it. These may include :

  • Changing eating habits to reduce intake of dietary saturated fat.
  • Being more physically active.
  • Maintaining your proper weight.
Your doctor may also prescribe a cholesterol-lowering medication in addition to these healthy lifestyle habits. ACTOS is not intended as a substitute for cholesterol medications.

Please see Important Safety Information, including warnings about heart failure and lactic acidosis, below.

The major underlying problems in type 2 diabetes are insulin resistance in muscle and fat, decreased insulin production by the pancreas, and increased sugar production by the liver. Other concerns include lipid problems, such as increased triglyceride levels (blood fats), low levels of HDL (good cholesterol), and high levels of LDL (bad cholesterol). Gastrointestinal (stomach) and kidney function are additional considerations.
There have been no clinical studies showing a decrease in the risk of macrovascular disease with ACTOS.

Is ACTOS right for you ?

Answer these questions and share them with your doctor to find out if ACTOS may be right for you :
  1. Are your premeal blood sugar levels consistently above 130 mg/dL ?
  2. Are you having problems managing your diabetes with healthy eating and physical activity alone ?
  3. Are you having problems managing your diabetes with your current prescription medications ?
  4. Do you prefer taking a prescription medication only once a day ?
  5. Are you interested in a diabetes prescription medication that may provide some improvements in HDL (good) cholesterol and triglyceride levels in addition to helping to manage your blood sugar ?
While ACTOS may provide some lipid benefits, ACTOS is not intended as a substitute for cholesterol medications. The effect of these lipid changes has not been determined.

If you have type 2 diabetes and answered yes to any of these questions, ask your doctor if ACTOS is right for you. Remember, only your doctor can determine the best treatment for you.

How ACTOS works ?

Turning food into energy
  • When you eat, food is broken down into different products that can be used by your body.
  • One of those products is glucose, or sugar, the main source of energy for the body.
  • In order to process glucose into energy, the pancreas produces insulin—a hormone that allows cells to absorb glucose (sugar).
  • Insulin is produced by the pancreas and is needed to let sugar into the body’s cells so it can be processed into energy.
Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes
  • For people with type 2 diabetes, the body cannot produce enough insulin to properly use the sugar in their blood. In addition, their cells lose their sensitivity to insulin—a condition known as insulin resistance.

  • Because some cells, such as muscle cells, are not sensitive to insulin, they cannot absorb blood sugar for the energy they need to function.

  • The body responds to this situation by signaling the pancreas to produce more insulin, causing insulin levels in the blood to become too high. This condition is known as hyperinsulinemia. Unfortunately, even this extra insulin does not allow insulin-resistant cells to absorb blood sugar.

  • Eventually, the pancreas can no longer produce enough insulin to compensate for insulin resistance. The cells in the liver also become insulin resistant and respond by making too much blood sugar.

  • Because blood sugar is not absorbed by the cells, it stays in the blood, causing blood sugar levels to rise—a condition known as hyperglycemia.

  • Over time, high levels of sugar in the blood can result in damage to parts of the body, such as the kidneys, eyes, nerves, and heart.
Reducing insulin resistance with ACTOS
  • Along with healthy eating and physical activity, ACTOS works by reducing insulin resistance, which helps reduce the harmful buildup of sugar in the blood.

    • ACTOS increases the sensitivity of cells to insulin. When the cells in the body are more sensitive to insulin :

      • They can absorb blood sugar for the energy they need to function properly.
      • The amount of sugar in the blood goes down, because the sugar is absorbed by the cells rather than remaining in the blood.
    Indications and Usage

    ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, and duetact are prescription medications used with diet and exercise to improve blood sugar (glucose) control in adults (≥18 years of age) with type 2 diabetes.

    Important Safety Information


    ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, and duetact are not for everyone. Certain patients with heart failure should not start taking ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, or duetact. These medications can cause new, or worsen, heart failure. Talk to your doctor immediately if you experience unusually fast weight gain, fluid retention (swelling), shortness of breath, unusual tiredness, or slow heartbeat.

    Warnings Specific to ACTOplus met and ACTOplus met XR

    Metformin, one of the medicines in ACTOplus met and ACTOplus met XR, can cause a rare but serious condition called lactic acidosis (a buildup of an acid in the blood) that can cause death. Lactic acidosis is a medical emergency and must be treated in the hospital. Because lactic acidosis occurs most frequently in people with kidney problems, ACTOplus met and ACTOplus met XR should not be used in people with kidney disease or in people 80 years of age or older whose kidneys do not work properly. ACTOplus met and ACTOplus met XR should not be taken by people with metabolic acidosis or who drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

    Talk to your doctor if you are going to have an X-ray procedure using injectable dye and are taking ACTOplus met or ACTOplus met XR.

    ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, and duetact are not for patients with type 1 "juvenile" diabetes or diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Warning Specific to duetact : The chance of death from serious heart or blood vessel problems may be higher when using a sulfonylurea, an ingredient in duetact.


    ACTOS may cause low blood sugar when taken in combination with insulin or sulfonylureas. Lightheadedness, shakiness, dizziness, or hunger may mean that your blood sugar is too low. Talk to your doctor if low blood sugar is a problem for you.

    Some people taking ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, or duetact may experience mild-to-moderate swelling of legs and ankles, anemia, and weight gain.

    If you are of childbearing age, talk to your doctor before taking ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, or duetact, as this could increase your chance of becoming pregnant. Talk to your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning to breastfeed.

    Do not take ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, or duetact if you have active liver disease. Your doctor should perform a blood test to check for liver problems before you start therapy and periodically thereafter. Talk to your doctor immediately if you experience nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, unusual tiredness, loss of appetite, dark urine, or yellowing of the skin or eyes.

    Some patients have experienced visual changes while taking ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, or duetact. If you experience vision problems, consult your doctor immediately.
    Some people, particularly women, are at higher risk of having bone fractures while taking ACTOS, ACTOplus met, ACTOplus met XR, or duetact.

    Precaution Specific to duetact: Taking glimepiride along with having an inherited condition where you don’t produce enough of the enzyme G6PD (G6PD deficiency) can cause hemolytic anemia, which causes red blood cells to be destroyed too quickly.

    Other side effects of these products may include :

    • ACTOS: cold or flu-like symptoms, headache, sinus infection, muscle pain, tooth disorder, and sore throat

    • ACTOplus met and ACTOplus met XR: cold or flu-like symptoms, diarrhea, nausea, headache, urinary tract infection, dizziness, and sinus infection

    • Duetact: cold or flu-like symptoms, headache, urinary tract infection, diarrhea, nausea, and limb pain

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Types of Phobias

From Ablutophobia To Zoophobia - All Types of Phobias

"A" Types of Phobias List
Ablutophobia - Fear of washing or bathing.
Acarophobia - Fear of itching or of the insects that cause itching.
Acerophobia - Fear of sourness.
Achluophobia - Fear of darkness.
Acousticophobia - Fear of noise.
Aeroacrophobia - Fear of open high places.
Aeronausiphobia - Fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness.
Aerophobia - Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airborne noxious substances.
Agliophobia - Fear of pain.
Agoraphobia - Fear of open spaces, or of being in crowded, public places like markets. Fear of leaving a safe place. Fear of crowds.
Agraphobia - Fear of sexual abuse.
Agrizoophobia - Fear of wild animals.
Agyrophobia - Fear of streets or crossing the street.
Aichmophobia - Fear of needles or pointed objects.
Ailurophobia - Fear of cats.
Albuminurophobia - Fear of kidney disease.
Alektorophobia - Fear of chickens.
Algophobia - Fear of pain.
Alliumphobia - Fear of garlic.
Allodoxaphobia - Fear of opinions.
Altophobia - Fear of heights.
Amathophobia - Fear of dust.
Amaxophobia - Fear of riding in a car.
Ambulophobia - Fear of walking.
Amnesiphobia - Fear of amnesia.
Amychophobia - Fear of scratches or being scratched.
Anablephobia - Fear of looking up.
Ancraophobia - Fear of wind.
Androphobia - Fear of men.
Anemophobia - Fear of air drafts or wind.
Anemophobia - Fear of wind.
Anginophobia - Fear of angina, choking of narrowness.
Anglophobia - Fear of England, English culture, ect.
Angrophobia - Fear of becoming angry.
Ankylophobia - Fear of immobility of a joint.
Anthophobia - Fear of flowers.
Anthrophobia - Fear of flowers.
Anthropophobia - Fear of people of society.
Antlophobia - Fear of floods.
Anuptaphobia - Fear of staying single.
Apeirophobia - Fear of infinity.
Aphenphosmphobia - Fear of being touched.
Apiphobia - Fear of bees.
Apotemnophobia - Fear of persons with amputations.
Arachibutyrophobia - Fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth.
Arachnephobiba - Fear of spiders.
Arachnophobia - Fear of spiders.
Arithmophobia - Fear of numbers.
Arrhenophobia - Fear of men.
Arsonphobia - Fear of fire.
Ashenophobia - Fear of fainting or weakness.
Astraphobia - Fear of thunder and lightning.
Astrapophobia - Fear of thunder and lightning.
Astrophobia - Fear of stars and celestial space.
Asymmetriphobia - Fear of asymmetrical things.
Ataxiophobia - Fear of ataxia (muscular incoordination)
Ataxophobia - Fear of disorder or untidiness.
Atelophobia - Fear of imperfection.
Atephobia - Fear of ruin or ruins.
Athazagoraphobia - Fear of being forgotten or ignored or forgetting.
Atomosophobia - Fear of atomic explosions.
Atychiphobia - Fear of failure.
Aulophobia - Fear of flutes.
Aurophobia - Fear of gold.
Auroraphobia - Fear of Northern Lights.
Autodysomophobia - Fear that one has a vile odor.
Automatonophobia - Fear of ventriloquist's dummies, animatronic creatures, wax statues-anything that falsely represents a sentient being.
Automysophobia - Fear of being dirty.
Autophobia - Fear of being alone or of oneself.
Aviatophobia - Fear of flying.
Aviophobia - Fear of flying.

"B" Types of Phobias

Bacillophobia - Fear of microbes
Bacteriophobia - Fear of bacteria.
Balenephobia - Fear of pins and needles.
Ballistophobia - Fear of missles or bullets.
Barophobia - Fear of gravity.
Basiphobia - Inability to stand. Fear of walking or falling.
Basophobia - Inability to stand. Fear of walking or falling.
Bathophobia - Fear of depth.
Batonophobia - Fear of plants.
Batophobia - Fear of heights or being close to high buildings.
Batrachophobia - Fear of amphibians, such as frogs, newts, salamanders, etc.
Bibliophobia - Fear of books.
Blennophobia - Fear of slime.
Bogyphobia - Fear of bogies or the bogeyman.
Bolshephobia - Fear of Bulsheviks.
Bromidrophobia - Fear of body smells.
Bromidrosiphobia - Fear of body smells.
Brontophobia - Fear of thunder and lightning.
Bufonophobia - Fear of toads.

"C" Types of Phobias
Cacophobia - Fear of ugliness.
Cainophobia - Fear of newness, novelty.
Cainotophobia - Fear of newness, novelty.
Caligynephobia - Fear of beautiful women.
Cancerophobia - Fear of cancer.
Carcinophobia - Fear of cancer.
Cardiophobia - Fear of the heart.
Carnophobia - Fear of meat.
Catagelophobia - Fear of being ridiculed.
Catapedaphobia - Fear of jumping from high and low places.
Cathisophobia - Fear of sitting.
Catoptrophobia - Fear of mirrors.
Cenophobia - Fear of new things or ideas.
Centophobia - Fear of new things or ideas.
Ceraunophobia - Fear of thunder.
Chaetophobia - Fear of hair.
Cheimaphobia - Fear of cold.
Cheimatophobia - Fear of cold.
chemophobia - Fear of chemicals or working with chemicals.
Cherophobia - Fear of gaiety.
Chionophobia - Fear of snow.
Chiraptophobia - Fear of being touched.
Cholerophobia - Fear of anger or the fear of cholera.
Chorophobia - Fear of dancing.
Chrematophobia - Fear of money.
Chromatophobia - Fear of colors.
Chrometophobia - Fear of money.
Chromophobia - Fear of colors.
Chronomentrophobia - Fear of clocks.
Chronophobia - Fear of time.
Cibophobia - Fear of food.
Claustrophobia - Fear of confined spaces.
Cleisiophobia - Fear of being locked in an enclosed place.
Cleithrophobia - Fear of being enclosed.
Cleithrophobia - Fear of being locked in an enclosed place.
Cleptophobia - Fear of stealing.
Climacophobia - Fear of stairs, climbing or of falling downstairs.
Clinophobia - Fear of going to bed.
Clithrophobia - Fear of being enclosed.
Cnidophobia - Fear of strings.
Coimetrophobia - Fear of cemeteries.
Coitophobia - Fear of coitus.
Cometophobia - Fear of comets.
Contreltophobia - Fear of sexual abuse.
Coprastasophobia - Fear of constipation.
Coprophobia - Fear of feces.
Coulrophobia - Fear of clowns.
Counterphobia - The preference by a phobic for fearful situations.
Cremnophobia - Fear of precipices.
Cryophobia - Fear fo extreme cold, ice or frost.
Crystallophobia - Fear of crystals or glass.
Cyberphobia - Fear of computers or working on a computer.
Cyclophobia - Fear of bicycles.
Cymophobia - Fear of waves or wave like motions.
Cynophobia - Fear of dogs or rabies.
Cyprianophobia - Fear of prostitutes or venereal disease.
Cypridophobia - Fear of prostitutes or venereal disease.
Cyprinophobia - Fear of prostitutes or venereal disease.
Cypriphobia - Fear of prostitutes or venereal disease.

"D" Types of Phobias
Daemonophobia - Fear of demons.
Decidophobia - Fear of making decisions.
Defecaloesiphobia - Fear of painful bowels movements.
Deipnophobia - Fear of dining and dinner conversation.
Dematophobia - Fear of skin lesions.
Dementophobia - Fear of insanity.
Demonophobia - Fear of demons.
Demophobia - Fear of crowds.
Dendrophobia - Fear of trees.
Dentophobia - Fear of dentist.
Dermatophathophobia - Fear of skin disease.
Dermatophobia - Fear of skin disease.
Dermatosiophobia - Fear of skin disease.
Dextrophobia - Fear of objects at the right side of the body.
Diabetophobia - Fear of diabetes.
Didaskaleinophobia - Fear of going to school.
Diderodromophobia - Fear of trains, railroads or train travel.
Dikephobia - Fear of justice.
Dinophobia - Fear of dizziness or whirlpools.
Diplophobia - Fear of double vision.
Dipsophobia - Fear drinking.
Dishabiliophobia - Fear of undressing in front of someone.
Domatophobia - Fear of houses or being in a home.
Doraphobia - Fear of fur or skins of animals
. Dromophobia - Fear of crossing streets.
Dutchphobia - Fear of the Dutch.
Dysmorphophobia - Fear of deformity.
Dystychiphobia - Fear of accidents.

"E" Types of Phobias
Ecclesiophobia - Fear of church.
Ecophobia - Fear of home.
Eicophobia - Fear of home surroundings.
Eisoptrophobia - Fear of mirrors or of seeing oneself in a mirror.
Electrophobia - Fear of electricity.
Eleutherophobia - Fear of freedom.
Elurophobia - Fear of cats.
Emetophobia - Fear of vomiting.
Enetophobia - Fear of pins.
Enissophobia - Fear of having committed an unpardonable sin or of criticism.
Enochlophobia - Fear of crowds.
Enosiophobia - Fear of having committed an unpardonable sin or of criticism.
Entomophobia - Fear of insects.
Eosophobia - Fear of dawn or daylight.
Epistaxiophobia - Fear of nosebleeds.
Epistemphobia - Fear of knowledge.
Equinophobia - Fear of hourse.
Eremophobia - Fear of being oneself or of lonliness.
Ereuthophobia - Fear of redlights. Fear of blushing. Fear of red.
Ereuthrophobia - Fear of blushing.
Ergasiophobia - Fear of work or functioning. Surgeon's fear of operating.
Ergophobia - Fear of work.
Erotophobia - Fear of sexual love or sexual questions.
Erythrophobia - Fear of redlights. Fear of blushing. Fear of red.
Erytophobia- Fear of redlights. Fear of blushing. Fear of red.
Euphobia - Fear of hearing good news.
Eurotophobia - Fear of female genitalia.

"F" Types of Phobias
Febriphobia - Fear of fever.
Felinophobia - Fear of cats.
Fibriophobia - Fear of fever.
Fibriphobia - Fear of fever.
Francophobia - Fear of France, French culture.

"G" Types of Phobias
Galeophobia - Fear of cats.
Galiophobia - Fear of France, French culture.
Gallophobia - Fear of France, French culture.
Gamophobia - Fear of marriage.
Gatophobia - Fear of cats.
Geliophobia - Fear of laughter.
Geniophobia - Fear of chins.
Genophobia - Fear of sex.
Genuphobia - Fear of knees.
Gephydrophobia - Fear of crossing bridges.
Gephyrophobia - Fear of crossing bridges.
Gephysrophobia - Fear of crossing bridges.
Gerascophobia - Fear of growing old.
Germanophobia - Fear of Germany, German culture, etc.
Gerontophobia - Fear of old people or of growing old.
Geumaphobia - Fear of taste.
Geumophobia - Fear of taste.
Gnosiophobia - Fear of knowledge.
Graphophobia - Fear of writing or handwritting.
Gymnophobia - Fear of nudity.
Gynephobia - Fear of women.
Gynophobia - Fear of women.

"H" Types of Phobias
Hadephobia - Fear of hell.
Hagiophobia - Fear of saints or holy things.
Hamartophobia - Fear of sinning.
Haphephobia - Fear of being touched.
Haptephobia - Fear of being touched.
Harpaxophobia - Fear of being robbed.
Hedonophobia - Fear of feeling pleasure.
Heliophobia - Fear of the sun.
Hellenologophobia - Fear of Greek terms or complex scientific terminology.
Helminthophobia - Fear of being infested with worms.
Hemaphobia - Fear of blood.
Hematophobia - Fear of blood.
Hemophobia - Fear of blood.
Hereiophobia - Fear of challenges to official doctrine or of radical deviation.
Heresyphobia - Fear of challenges to official doctrine or radical deviation.
Herpetophobia - Fear of reptiles or creepy, crawly things.
Heterophobia - Fear of the opposite sex.
Hierophobia - Fear of priest or sacred things.
Hippophobia - Fear of horses.
Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia - Fear of long words.
Hobophobia - Fear of bums or beggars.
Hodophobia - Fear of road travel.
Homichlophobia - Fear of fog.
Homilophobia - Fear of sermons.
Hominophobia - Fear of men.
Homophobia - Fear of sameness, monotony or of homosexuality or of becoming homosexual.
Hoplophobia * Fear of firearms.
Hormephobia - Fear of shock.
Hydrargyophobia - Fear of mercuial medicines.
Hydrophobia - Fear of water of of rabies.
Hydrophobophobia - Fear or rabies.
Hyelophobia - Fear of glass.
Hygrophobia - Fear of liquids, dampness, or moisture.
Hylephobia - Fear of materialism or the fear of epilepsy.
Hylophobia - Fear of forests.
Hynophobia - Fear of sleep or of being hypnotized.
Hypegiaphobia - Fear of responsibility.
Hypengyophobia - Fear of responsibility.
Hypsiphobia - Fear of height.

"I" Types of Phobias
Iatrophobia - Fear of going to the doctor or doctors.
Ichthyophobia - Fear of fish.
Ideophobia - Fear of ideas.
Illyngophobia - Fear of vertigo or feeling dizzy when looking down.
insectophobia - fear of insects.
Iophobia - Fear of poison.
Isolophobia - Fear of solitude, being alone.
Isopterophobia - Fear of termites, insects that eat wood.
Ithyphallophobia - Fear of seeing, thinking about, or having an erect penis.

"J" Types of Phobias
Japanophobia - Fear of Japanese.
Judeophobia - Fear of Jews.

"K" Types of Phobias
Kainolophobia - Fear of novelty.
Kainophobia - Fear of anything new, novelty.
Kakorrhaphiophobia - Fear of failure or defeat.
Katagelophobia - Fear of ridicule.
Kathisophobia - Fear of sitting down.
Kenophobia - Fear of voids or empty spaces.
Keraunophobia - Fear of thunder and lightning.
Kinesophobia - Fear of movement or motion.
Kinetophobia - Fear of movement or motion.
Kleptophobia - Fear of movement or motion.
Koinoniphobia - Fear of rooms.
Kolpophobia - Fear of genitals, particulary female.
Koniophobia - Fear of dust.
Kopophobia - Fear of fatigue.
Kosmikophobi - Fear of cosmic phenomenon.
Kymophobia - Fear of waves.
Kynophobia - Fear of rabies.
Kyphophobia - Fear of stooping.

"L" Types of Phobias
Lachanophobia - Fear of vegitables.
Laliophobia - Fear of speaking.
Lalophobia - Fear of speaking.
Lepraphobia - Fear of leprosy.
Leprophobia - Fear of leprosy.
Leukophobia - Fear of the color white.
Levophobia - Fear of things to the left side of the body.
Ligyrophobia - Fear of loud noises.
Lilapsophobia - Fear of tornadoes and hurricanes.
Limnophobia - Fear of lakes.
Linonophobia - Fear of string.
Liticaphobia - Fear of lawsuits.
Lockiophobia - Fear fo childbirth.
Logizomechanophobia - Fear of computers.
Logophobia - Fear of words.
Luiphobia - Fear of lues, syphillis.
Lutraphobia - Fear of otters.
Lygophobia - Fear of darkness.
Lysssophobia - Fear of rabies or of becoming mad.

"M" Types of Phobias
Macrophobia - Fear of long waits.
Mageirocophobia *- Fear of cooking.
Maieusiophobia - Fear of childbirth.
Malaxophobia - Fear of love play.
Maniaphobia - Fear of insanity.
Mastigophobia - Fear of punishment.
Mechanophobia - Fear of machines.
Medomalacuphobia - Fear of losing an erection.
Medorthophobia - Fear of an erect penis.
Megalophobia - Fear of large things.
Melanophobia - Fear of the color black.
Melissophobia - Fear of bees.
Melophobia - Fear of hatred or music.
Meningitiophobia - Fear of brain disease.
Merinthophobia - Fear of being bound or tied up.
Mertophobia - Fear or hatred of poetry.
Metallophobia - Fear of metal.
Metathesiophobia - Fear of changes.
Meterorophobia - Fear of Meteors.
Methyphobia - Fear of alcohol.
Microbiophobia - Fear of microbes.
Microphobia - Fear of small things.
Misophobia - Fear of being contaminated with dirt or germs.
Mnemophobia - Fear of memories.
Molysmophobia - Fear of dirt or contamination.
Molysomophobia - Fear of dirt or contamination.
Monopathophobia - Fear of difinite disease.
Monophobia - Fear of solitude or being alone.
Monophobia - Fear of menstruation.
Motorphobia - Fear of automobiles.
Mottophobia - Fear of moths.
Murophobia - Fear of mice.
Musophobia - Fear of mice.
Mycophobia - Fear or aversion to mushrooms.
Mycrophobia - Fear of small things.
Myctophobia - Fear of darkness.
Myrmecophobia - Fear of ants.
Mysophobia - Fear of germs or contamination or dirt.
Mythophobia - Fear of myths or stories or false statements.
Myxophobia - Fear of slime.

"N" Types of Phobias 
Namatophobia - Fear of names.
Nebulaphobia - Fear of fog.
Necrophobia - Fear of death or or dead things.
Nelophobia - Fear of glass.
Neopharmaphobia - Fear of new drugs.
neophobia - Fear of anything new.
Nephophobia - Fear of clouds.
Noctiphobia - Fear of the night.
Nosemaphobia - Fear of becoming ill.
Nosocomephobia - Fear of hospitals.
Nosophobia - Fear of becoming ill.
Nostophobia - Fear of returning home.
Novercaphobia - Fear of your step-mother.
Nucleomituphobia - Fear of nuclear weapons.
Nudophobia - Fear of nudity.
Numerophobia - Fear of numbers.
Nyctohlophobia - Fear of dark wooded areas, of forest at night.
Nyctophobia - Fear of the dark or of the night.

"O" Types of Phobias
Obesophobia - Fear of gaining weight.
Ochlophobia - Fear of crowds or mobs.
Ochophobia - Fear of vehicles.
Octophobia - Fear of the figure 8.
Odontophobia - Fear of teeth or dental surgery.
Odynephobia - Fear of pain.
Odynophobia - Fear of pain.
Oenophobia - Fear of wines.
Oikophobia - Fear of home surroundings, house.
Oikophobia - Fear of houses or being in a house.
Oikophobia - Fear of home surroundings.
Olfactophobia - Fear of smells.
Ombrophobia - Fear of rain or being rained on.
Ommatophobia - Fear of eyes.
Ommetaphobia - Fear of eyes.
Oneirogmophobia - Fear of wet dreams.
Oneirophobia - Fear of dreams.
Onomatophobia - Fear of hearing a certain word or names.
Ophidiophobia - Fear of snakes.
Opthalmophobia - Fear of being stared at.
Optophobia - Fear of opening one's eyes.
Ornithophobia - Fear of birds.
Orthophobia - Fear of property.
Osmophobia - Fear of smells or odors.
Osphesiophobia - Fear of smells or odors.
Ostraconophobia - Fear of shellfish.
Ouranophobia - Fear of heaven.

"P" Types of Phobias
Pagophobia - Fear of ice or frost.
Panophobia - Fear of everything.
Panthophobia - Fear of suffering and disease.
Pantophobia - Fear of everything.
Papaphobia - Fear fo the Pope.
Papyrophobia - Fear of paper.
Paralipophobia - Fear of neglecting duty or responsibility.
Paraphobia - Fear of sexual perversion.
Parasitophobia - Fear of parasites.
Paraskavedekatriaphobia - Fear of Friday the 13th.
Parthenophobia - Fear of virgins or young girls.
Parturiphobia - Fear of childbirth.
Pathophobia - Fear of disease.
Patroiophobia - Fear of heredity.
Peccatophobia - Fear of sinning. (imaginary crime)
Pediculophobia - Fear of lice.
Pediophobia - Fear of dolls.
Pedophobia - Fear of children.
Peladophobia - Fear of bald people.
Pellagrophobia - Fear of pellagra.
Peniaphobioa - Fear of poverty.
Pentheraphobia - Fear of mother-in-law.
Phagophobia - Fear of swallowing or eating or of being eaten.
Phalacrophobia - Fear of becoming bald.
Phallophobia - Fear of penis, esp erect.
Pharmacophobia - Fear of taking medicine.
Pharmacophobia - Fear of drugs.
Phasmophobia - Fear of ghost.
Phengophobia - Fear of daylight or sunshine.
Philemaphobia - Fear of kissing.
Philematophobia - Fear of kissing.
Philophobia - Fear of falling in love or being in love.
Philosophobia - Fear of philosophy.
Phobophobia - Fear of phobias.
Phonophobia - Fear of noises or voices or one's own voice; of telephones.
Photoaugliaphobia - Fear of glaring lights.
Photophobia - Fear of light.
Phronemophobia - Fear of thinking.
Phthiriophobia - Fear of lice.
Phthisiophobia - Fear of tuberculosis.
Placophobia - Fear of tombstones.
Plutophobia - Fear of wealth.
Pluviophobia - Fear of rain or of being rained on.
Pneumatiphobia - Fear of spirits.
Pnigerophobia - Fear of choking or of being smothered.
Pnigophobia - Fear of choking or of being smothered.
Pocrescophobia - Fear of gaining weight.
Pocresophobia - Fear of gaining weight.
Pogonophobia - Fear of beards.
Poinephobia - Fear of punishment.
Poliosophobia - Fear of contracting poliomyelitis.
Politicophobia - Fear or abnormal dislike of politicians.
Polyphobia - Fear of many things.
Ponophobia - Fear of overworking or of pain.
Porphyrophobia - Fear of the color purple.
Potamophobia - Fear of rivers or running water.
Potophobia - Fear of alcohol.
Proctophobia - Fear or rectum.
Prosophobia - Fear of progress.
Psellismophobia - Fear of stuttering.
Psychophobia - Fear of mind.
Psychrophobia - Fear of cold.
Pteromerhanophobia - Fear of flying.
Pteronophobia - Fear of being tickled by feathers.
Pupaphobia - Fear of puppets.
Pyrexiophobia - Fear of fever.
Pyrophobia - Fear of fire.
"R" Types of Phobias
Radiophobia - Fear of radiation, x-rays.
Ranidaphobia - Fear of frogs.
Rectophobia - Fear of rectum or rectal diseases.
Rhabdophobia - Fear of being severely punished or beaten by a rod, or of being severely criticized. ..........................Also fear of magic. (wand)
Rhypophobia - Fear of defecation.
Rhytiphobia - Fear of getting wrinkles.
Rupophobia - Fear of dirt.
Russophobia - Fear of Russians.

"S" Types of Phobias
Samhainophobia - Fear of Halloween.
Sarmassophobia - Fear of love play.
Sarmassophobia - Fear of love play.
Satanophobia - Fear of Satin.
Scabiophobia - Fear of scabies.
Scatophobia - Fear of fecal matter.
Scelerophobia - Fear of bad men, burglars.
Sciaphobia - Fear of shadows.
Sciophobia - Fear of shadows.
Scoionophobia - Fear of school.
Scoleciphobia - Fear of worms.
Scopophobia - Fear of being seen or stared at.
Scoptophobia - Fear of being seen or stared at.
Scotomaphobia - Fear of blindness in visual field.
Scotophobia - Fear of darkness.
Scriptophobia - Fear of writing in public.
Selaphobia - Fear of light flashes.
Selenophobia - Fear of the moon.
Seplophobia - Fear of decaying matter.
Sesquipedalophobia - Fear of long words.
Sexophobia - Fear of the opposit sex.
Sexophobia - Fear of the opposite sex.
Siderophobia - Fear of stars.
Sinistrophobia - Fear of things to the left, left-handed.
Sinophobia - Fear of Chinese, Chinese culture.
Sitiophobia - Fear of food.
Sitiophobia - Fear of food or eating.
Sitophobia - Fear of food or eating.
Sitophobia - Fear of food.
Snakephobia - Fear of snakes.
Soceraphobia - Fear of parents-in-law.
Social Phobia - Fear of being evaluated negatively in social situations.
Sociophobia - Fear of society or people in general.
Somniphobia - Fear of sleep.
Sophophobia - Fear of learning.
Soteriophobia - Fear of dependence on others.
Spacephobia - Fear of outer space.
Spectrophobia - Fear of specters or ghosts.
Spermatophobia - Fear of germs.
Spermophobia - Fear of germs.
Spheksophobia - Fear of wasps.
Stasibasiphobia - Fear fo standing or walking.
Stasiphobia - Fear of standing or walking.
Staurophobia - Fear of crosses or the crucifix.
Stenophobia - Fear of narrow things or places.
Stigiophobia - Fear of hell.
Stygiophobia - Fear of hell.
Suriphobia - Fear of mice.
Symbolophobia - Fear of symbolism.
Symmetrophobia - Fear of symmetry.
Syngenesophobia - Fear of relatives.
Syphilophobia - Fear of syphilis.

"T" Types of Phobias
Tachophobia - Fear of speed.
Taeniophobia - Fear of tapeworms.
Teniophobia - Fear of tapeworms.
Taphephobia - Fear of being buried alive or of cemeteries.
Taphophobia - Fear of being buried alive or of cemeteries.
Tapinophobia - Fear of being contagious.
Taurophobia - Fear of bulls.
Technophobia - Fear of technology.
Teleophobia - Fear fo difinite plans. Fear of Religious ceremony.
Telephonophobia - Fear of telephones.
Teratophobia - Fear of bearing a deformed child or fear of monsters or deformed people.
Testaphobia - Fear of taking test.
Tetanophobia - Fear of lockjaw, tetnus.
Teutophobia - Fear of German or German things.
Textophobia - Fear of certain fabrics.
Thaasophobia - Fear of sitting.
Thalassophobia - Fear of the sea.
Thanatophobia - Fear of death or dying.
Thantophobia - Fear of death or dying.
Theatrophobia - Fear of theaters.
Theophobia - Fear of gods or religion.
Theologicophobia - Fear of theology.
Thermophobia - Fear of heat.
Tocophobia Fear of pregnancy or childbirth.
Tomophobia - Fear of surgical operations.
Tonitrophobia - Fear of thunder.
Topophobia - Fear of certain places or situations, such as stage fright.
Toxiphobia - Fear of poison or of being accidently poisoned.
Toxophobia - Fear of poison or of being accidently poisoned.
Toxicophobia - Fear of poison or of being accidently poisoned.
Traumatophobia - Fear of injury.
Tremophobia - Fear of trembling.
Trichinophobia - Fear of trichinosis.
Trichopathophobia - Fear of hair.
Trichophobia - Fear of hair.
Hypertrichophobia - Fear of hair.
Triskaidekaphobia - Fear of the number 13.
Tropophobia - Fear of moving or making changes.
Trypanophobia - Fear of injections.
Tuberculophobia - Fear of tuberculosis.
Tyrannophobia - Fear of tyrants.

"U" Types of Phobias
Uranophobia - Fear of heaven.
Urophobia - Fear of urine or urinating.

"V" Types of Phobia
Vaccinophobia - Fear of vaccination.
Venustraphobia - Fear of beautiful women.
Verbophobia - Fear of words.
Verminophobia - Fear of germs.
Vestiphobia - Fear of clothing.
Virginitiphobia - Fear of rape.
Vitricophobia - Fear of step-father.

"W" Types of Phobias
Walloonphobia - Fear of Walloons.
Wiccaphobia - Fear of witches and witchcraft.

"X" Types of Phobias
Xanthophobia - Fear of the color yellow or the word yellow.
Xenophobia - Fear of strangers or foreigners.
Xerophobia - Fear of dryness.
Xylophobia - Fear of wooden objects. Forests.
"Z" Types of Phobias
Zelophobia - Fear of jelousy.
Zeusophobia - Fear of God or gods.
Zemmiphobia - Fear of the great mole rat.
Zoophobia - Fear of animals.

Wednesday, September 22, 2010

What is Anorexia ?


Many people ask, what is anorexia ?  Anorexia is an eating disorder characterized by extreme weight loss and lack of eating.  Anorexics may also exercise obsessively.  People with anorexia may also have bulimia, a disorder in which they make themselves vomit after eating in order to avoid gaining weight.  Anorexia affects many more women than men.  It is a very serious condition and can result in death if it is not treated properly.

Treating anorexia nervosa is difficult because it is such a complex disorder.  It is a mental illness, but also involves serious medical complications, including :

  • Hypotension (low blood pressure).
  • Brachycardia (a slow heartbeat).
  • Irregular heartbeats.
  • A weakened heart muscle.
  • Risk of heart failure.
  • Low levels of potassium, magnesium, and sodium in the body.
  • Anemia.
  • Dehydration.
  • Hormonal imbalances, leading to lack of menstrual period in women.
  • Weak muscles and fatigue.
  • Dizziness or fainting.
  • Kidney and liver disorders.
  • Gastro-intestinal problems, such as constipation, stomach pain, and ulcers.
  • Osteoporosis (loss of bones mass, causing brittle bones that break easily).

What Is Anorexia Caused By ?

Anorexics often have a distorted body image and believe they are fat when in truth they are severely underweight.  Some think anorexia is caused in part by our society, which places a strong value on being thin.  The media bombards us with images of thin models and tells us thin is beautiful.  Weight loss products are heavily marketed.  Even young girls often believe they need to loose weight and go on diets.

When asked what is anorexia caused by, however, experts can name a number of other possible causes.  People with anorexia often feel out of control of things in their lives.  Controlling their food intake gives them a feeling of control.

Still other experts, when asked what is anorexia caused by, point to a connection between anorexia and sexual abuse.  Many women who were sexually abused as children develop eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa as adults.  This doesn’t happen in all cases, but there does seem to be a connection.
As you can see, experts do not always agree about the cause of anorexia.  The cause may vary from individual to individual, and in some cases may never be known.

Now that we’ve talked about what is anorexia, let’s talk about how it’s treated.

Treating Anorexia Nervosa

Treating anorexia nervosa begins with treating the worst of the physical problems.  Many anorexics are near death before they seek treatment or are forced into treatment.  (Since many anorexics do not recognize the seriousness of their condition, family members may seek court orders to force them into treatment.)  Their medical condition must be stabilized before psychological treatment can begin.

Medical treatment generally begins with hospitalization.  Patients may need to be tube fed for a timeuntil they begin to eat enough food on their own.  Their food intake will be monitored closely.

Once a patient is medically stable, treating anorexia nervosa involves educating them about what is anorexia and about proper nutrition.  It also involves individual and group psychotherapy to help resolve the issues that led to the development of the disorder.  The exact treatment may depend on what is anorexia caused by in each individual case.  However, for many men and women with anorexia, the exact cause may never be known.  The condition can still be treated in the same way, however; the patient is medically stabilized, provided with education about their condition and given psychotherapy.

Treating anorexia nervosa is a long process.  Continued support is required so that symptoms do not reappear after the person leaves the hospital.

Ever heard of Lunaria Plant (aka Money Plant)


Lunaria, or money plant, is a member of the Brassicaceae family that is noted for its papery dried seed pods. They are biennial in habit, meaning they produce green, leafy growth the first year and flowers the next. The silvery seed pods are used in dried flower arrangements and can last for years. A European native that is now established throughout much of North America, it grows wild in many areas. It is also known as dollar plant, annual honesty, perennial honesty and silver dollar.

The four-petaled flowers of the lunaria plant are violet in color, highly fragrant, and bloom throughout the early summer in clusters atop a single stem. They have a habit of fading as they mature, making them appear lavender or nearly white. The leaves are large, deep green and toothed, and grow in a clump close to the ground and up the stem. These are good garden plants for beginners, because they are extremely easy to
grow and are not picky about soil or sunlight.

This ornamental plant grows to 2 feet tall (0.6 m) or more and can be top heavy, making it prone to toppling over in windy conditions. Staking can help prevent this from happening. It also has shallow roots and may need to be replanted deeper in the soil to increase stability and to help prevent the roots from drying out.
Lunaria is unusual in that it is commonly planted not for its flowers but for its seedpods. After the flowers have gone in midsummer, flat green seedpods begin to appear. They are about 1 inch in diameter (2.5 cm) with from three to six large flat seeds visible inside each one. As summer goes on, they turn a silvery tan color and become more transparent. The pod splits and the seeds turn brown, dropping onto the ground to sprout the following growing season, and leaving thin, ornamental, coin-like circles behind on the stalks. 

Once lunaria has been around for a few years, it will begin appearing everywhere, because it spreads readily. It transplants well, making it easy to move plants when they grow where they are not wanted. They will continue to spread each year but not to the point of becoming invasive like its cousin Hesperis matronalis, or Dame’s Rocket. While they are members of the same family of flowering plants and they are similar in appearance, lunaria does not colonize into large swarms of plants as hesperis does.

Tuesday, September 21, 2010

What is Lysine and its benefit ?

[Extracted from the webpage of]


Lysine is one of 20 most common natural amino acids that the body needs for growth and tissue repair. Lysine is an essential amino acid because it cannot be synthesized in the body and its breakdown is irreversible. Lysine is the limiting amino acid in all cereal grains, but is plentiful in all pulses. A deficiency in lysine can result in a deficiency in niacin (which is a B Vitamin). This can cause the disease pellagra. In the tissues, lysine readily converts its epsilon carbon then to carbon dioxide, helping to form glutamic acid. It can also be converted to carnitine in the body. A unique property that lysine has is that it does not change its nitrogen with other circulating amino acids. Like all amino acids, lysine functions as a building block for proteins. It's also a key player in the production of various enzymes, hormones, and disease-fighting antibodies. Lysine is involved in the browning reaction, or carmelization, in foods such as pastries, doughnuts, cookies and cereals. Lysine is dependent upon riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 for its assimilation. Using iron and vitamin C, lysine helps form collagen.

Lysine functions, uses, and health benefits

Lysine has many functions in the body because it is incorporated into many proteins, each of which is used by the body for a variety of purposes. It is an essential building block for all protein, and is needed for proper growth and bone development in children.
Lysine helps the body absorb and conserve calcium and it plays an important role in the formation of collagen, a substance important for bones and connective tissues including skin, tendon, and cartilage. When vitamin C is combined with lysine, the formation of collagen is enhanced. Collagen is important to the formation of bone and tissue along with its repair. Because it helps to build muscle protein and repair tissues, lysine is especially important for those recovering from surgery or sports-related injuries.

The most promising application of lysine is its use in managing and preventing painful and unsightly herpes sores caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Lysine interferes with replication of herpes viruses and is therefore often prescribed by doctors to people with cold sores or genital herpes. Lysine supplements (as opposed to foods high in this nutrient) can also play an important role in staving off and reducing the severity of herpes-related cold sores. L-lysine can be used to treat mouth and genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus as well as shingles caused by herpes zoster viruses. Lysine, when combine with arginine can stimulate release of human growth hormone. Growth hormone boosts metabolic funcition, increasing the rate at which fat is burnt for energy. Growth hormone also has an anabolic effect, promoting protein formation and tissue growth. pain following an episiotomy. These forms of lysine may also relieve migraine headaches and painful periods.

Dietary sources of lysine

Good sources of lysine are foods rich in protein including meat (specifically red meat, pork, and poultry), cheese (particularly parmesan), certain fish (such as cod and sardines), nuts, eggs, soybeans (particularly tofu, isolated soy protein, and defatted soybean flour), spirulina, and fenugreek seed. The soy-based products are especially beneficial to vegetarians, who may find it difficult to enrich their diets with lysine. Vegetables, on the other hand, are generally a poor source of lysine, with the exception of legumes (beans, peas, lentils). Lysine is also available as L-lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS), Lysine clonixinate (LC), and L-lysine monohydrochlorine (LMH). Foods (like gelatin, chocolate, carob, coconut, oats, wholewheat and white flour, peanuts, soybean) contain a high arginine to lysine ratio and should be avoided during a herpes eruption.

Lysine dosage, intake

As with all supplements and medications, it is necessary to consult your doctor for proper dosage. Most people do not require lysine supplementation. Adults may need up to 30 mg per kilogram of body weight per day. Typical dosage used for possible prevention of herpes simplex virus recurrence is 500 mg to 3 grams daily. The average dose is 1 gram daily. Higher doses are split throughout the day. Of all the amino acids, lysine is the most sensitive to the effects of food processing, such as dry heat. The amount of protein available in legumes and other sources of lysine can be significantly reduced if they have been toasted or roasted.

Lysine deficiency

Lysine deficiencies occur more often in people who do not consume any animal products than in those who do. A lysine deficiency can occur either by an inadequate dietary intake or by an excessive arginine intake. Lysine deficiency can interfere with carnitine synthesis and have adverse impact upon fat metabolism to energy. A lysine deficiency may also lead to calcium loss, which could increase your risk of developing osteoporosis. Symptoms of lysine deficiency include fatigue, nausea, dizziness, loss of appetite, agitation, bloodshot eyes, slow growth, anemia, and reproductive disorders.

Toxicity, side effects, interactions, and contraindications

Lysine supplements are considered safe and nontoxic. Side effects have not been reported with the use of lysine, although very high doses (more than 10 grams a day) may cause gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, abdominal cramps and diarrhea. Lysine must be used with care in supplement form when taking antibiotics. In very large doses (10 to 30 grams a day), lysine increases the toxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics, such as gentamicin, neomycin, and streptomycin. Don't drink milk at the same time you take lysine.

CHEMOTHERAPY kills more people that it "Cures"

[Extracted from the website of]

Many people who “die from cancer” really die from the chemotherapy long before they would have actually died from the cancer itself.

To put it plainly, the treatment kills them before the cancer kills them. As a matter of fact, the chemotherapy drug 5FU is sometimes referred to ... by doctors as “5 feet under” because of its deadly side effects. For most adult cancers, the typical best case scenario is that the “Big 3” buys a little time. In a worst case scenario, you will die from the treatment rather than the disease.

Do you remember Tony Snow ?

But don’t take it from me !
Here’s what Dr. Allen Levin says about this topic: Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon, or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade, yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumors.

In his book, The Topic of Cancer : When the Killing Has to Stop, Dick Richards cites a number of autopsy studies which have shown that cancer patients actually died from conventional treatments before the tumor had a chance to kill them. 

Just think about it...
Chemotherapy has always been developed from toxic poisonous chemicals, right ? So, there has always been a fine line between administering a “therapeutic dose” and killing the cancer patient.  Many doctors step over that line. 

In his book, When Healing Becomes a Crime, Kenny Ausubel notes that in a trial on a chemotherapy drug tested for leukemia, a whopping 42% of the patients died directly from the toxicity of the chemotherapy drug !

Here are the facts. In 1942, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center quietly began to treat breast cancer with these mustard gas derivatives. No one was cured. Chemotherapy trials were also conducted at Yale around 1943 where 160 patients were treated. Again, no one was cured. 
According to Dr. John Diamond, M.D., “A study of over 10,000 patients shows clearly that chemo’s supposedly strong track record with Hodgkin’s disease (lymphoma) is actually a lie. Patients who underwent chemo were 14 times more likely to develop leukemia and 6 times more likely to develop cancers of the bones, joints, and soft tissues than those patients who did not undergo chemotherapy.”

Dr. Glenn Warner, who died in 2000, was  one of the most highly qualified cancer specialists in the United States. He used alternative treatments on his cancer patients with great success. On the treatment of cancer in this country he said: “We have a multi-billion dollar industry that is killing people, right and left, just for financial gain. Their idea of research is to see whether two doses of this poison is better than three doses of that poison.” 

Dr. Alan C. Nixon,  past president of the American Chemical Society writes, “As a chemist trained to interpret data, it is incomprehensible to me that physicians can ignore the clear evidence that chemotherapy does much, much more harm than good.” And according to Dr. Charles Mathe, French cancer specialist, “…if I contracted cancer, I would never go to a standard cancer treatment centre. Only cancer victims who live far from such centres have a chance.” 

Yet, day after day, year after year, the Cancer Industry continues to put these toxic chemicals into the bodies of cancer patients. And the patients let them do it, even volunteering for new “guinea pig” studies, simply because someone with a degree from a school of disease (also known as medical school) told them it was their “only option.”  It costs lots of money for them to poison the body of cancer patients, and the patients gladly pay it. Sadly, some people will spend six figures a year poisoning their bodies because their “doctor told them to do it.” 

The truth is that there are many effective natural cancer treatments that don't require a barbaric procedure like chemotherapy.

Sunday, September 12, 2010

Knowledge about your Kidneys

[Extracted from the website of The Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse]

The kidneys are a pair of vital organs that perform many functions to keep the blood clean and chemically balanced. Understanding how the kidneys work can help a person keep them healthy.

What do the kidneys do ?

The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the middle of the back, just below the rib cage, one on each side of the spine. The kidneys are sophisticated reprocessing machines. Every day, a person’s kidneys process about 200 quarts of blood to sift out about 2 quarts of waste products and extra water. The wastes and extra water become urine, which flows to the bladder through tubes called ureters. The bladder stores urine until releasing it through urination.

Wastes in the blood come from the normal breakdown of active tissues, such as muscles, and from food. The body uses food for energy and self-repairs. After the body has taken what it needs from food, wastes are sent to the blood. If the kidneys did not remove them, these wastes would build up in the blood and damage the body.

The actual removal of wastes occurs in tiny units inside the kidneys called nephrons. Each kidney has about a million nephrons. In the nephron, a glomerulus—which is a tiny blood vessel, or capillary—intertwines with a tiny urine-collecting tube called a tubule. The glomerulus acts as a filtering unit, or sieve, and keeps normal proteins and cells in the bloodstream, allowing extra fluid and wastes to pass through. A complicated chemical exchange takes place, as waste materials and water leave the blood and enter the urinary system.

At first, the tubules receive a combination of waste materials and chemicals the body can still use. The kidneys measure out chemicals like sodium, phosphorus, and potassium and release them back to the blood to return to the body. In this way, the kidneys regulate the body’s level of these substances. The right balance is necessary for life.

In addition to removing wastes, the kidneys release three important hormones:

  • erythropoietin, or EPO, which stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells
  • renin, which regulates blood pressure
  • calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, which helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body

What is renal function ?

The word “renal” refers to the kidneys. The terms “renal function” and “kidney function” mean the same thing. Health professionals use the term “renal function” to talk about how efficiently the kidneys filter blood. People with two healthy kidneys have 100 percent of their kidney function. Small or mild declines in kidney function—as much as 30 to 40 percent—would rarely be noticeable. Kidney function is now calculated using a blood sample and a formula to find the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The eGFR corresponds to the percent of kidney function available.

Some people are born with only one kidney but can still lead normal, healthy lives. Every year, thousands of people donate one of their kidneys for transplantation to a family member or friend.

For many people with reduced kidney function, a kidney disease is also present and will get worse. Serious health problems occur when people have less than 25 percent of their kidney function. When kidney function drops below 10 to 15 percent, a person needs some form of renal replacement therapy—either blood-cleansing treatments called dialysis or a kidney transplant—to sustain life.

Why do kidneys fail ?

Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons, causing them to lose their filtering capacity. Damage to the nephrons can happen quickly, often as the result of injury or poisoning. But most kidney diseases destroy the nephrons slowly and silently. Only after years or even decades will the damage become apparent. Most kidney diseases attack both kidneys simultaneously.

The two most common causes of kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure. People with a family history of any kind of kidney problem are also at risk for kidney disease.

Diabetic Kidney Disease

Diabetes is a disease that keeps the body from using glucose, a form of sugar, as it should. If glucose stays in the blood instead of breaking down, it can act like a poison. Damage to the nephrons from unused glucose in the blood is called diabetic kidney disease. Keeping blood glucose levels down can delay or prevent diabetic kidney disease. Use of medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) to treat high blood pressure can also slow or delay the progression of diabetic kidney disease.

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure can damage the small blood vessels in the kidneys. The damaged vessels cannot filter wastes from the blood as they are supposed to.

A doctor may prescribe blood pressure medication. ACE inhibitors and ARBs have been found to protect the kidneys even more than other medicines that lower blood pressure to similar levels. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), one of the National Institutes of Health, recommends that people with diabetes or reduced kidney function keep their blood pressure below 130/80.

Glomerular Diseases

Several types of kidney disease are grouped together under this category, including autoimmune diseases, infection-related diseases, and sclerotic diseases. As the name indicates, glomerular diseases attack the tiny blood vessels, or glomeruli, within the kidney. The most common primary glomerular diseases include membranous nephropathy, IgA nephropathy, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The first sign of a glomerular disease is often proteinuria, which is too much protein in the urine. Another common sign is hematuria, which is blood in the urine. Some people may have both proteinuria and hematuria. Glomerular diseases can slowly destroy kidney function. Blood pressure control is important with any kidney disease. Glomerular diseases are usually diagnosed with a biopsy—a procedure that involves taking a piece of kidney tissue for examination with a microscope. Treatments for glomerular diseases may include immunosuppressive drugs or steroids to reduce inflammation and proteinuria, depending on the specific disease.

Inherited and Congenital Kidney Diseases

Some kidney diseases result from hereditary factors. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), for example, is a genetic disorder in which many cysts grow in the kidneys. PKD cysts can slowly replace much of the mass of the kidneys, reducing kidney function and leading to kidney failure.

Some kidney problems may show up when a child is still developing in the womb. Examples include autosomal recessive PKD, a rare form of PKD, and other developmental problems that interfere with the normal formation of the nephrons. The signs of kidney disease in children vary. A child may grow unusually slowly, vomit often, or have back or side pain. Some kidney diseases may be silent—causing no signs or symptoms—for months or even years.

If a child has a kidney disease, the child’s doctor should find it during a regular checkup. The first sign of a kidney problem may be high blood pressure; a low number of red blood cells, called anemia; proteinuria; or hematuria. If the doctor finds any of these problems, further tests may be necessary, including additional blood and urine tests or radiology studies. In some cases, the doctor may need to perform a biopsy.

Some hereditary kidney diseases may not be detected until adulthood. The most common form of PKD was once called “adult PKD” because the symptoms of high blood pressure and renal failure usually do not occur until patients are in their twenties or thirties. But with advances in diagnostic imaging technology, doctors have found cysts in children and adolescents before any symptoms appear.

Other Causes of Kidney Disease

Poisons and trauma, such as a direct and forceful blow to the kidneys, can lead to kidney disease.

Some over-the-counter medicines can be poisonous to the kidneys if taken regularly over a long period of time. Anyone who takes painkillers regularly should check with a doctor to make sure the kidneys are not at risk.

How do kidneys fail ?

Many factors that influence the speed of kidney failure are not completely understood. Researchers are still studying how protein in the diet and cholesterol levels in the blood affect kidney function.

Acute Kidney Injury

Some kidney problems happen quickly, such as when an accident injures the kidneys. Losing a lot of blood can cause sudden kidney failure. Some drugs or poisons can make the kidneys stop working. These sudden drops in kidney function are called acute kidney injury (AKI). Some doctors may also refer to this condition as acute renal failure (ARF).

AKI may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, acute kidney disease may be reversed.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Most kidney problems, however, happen slowly. A person may have “silent” kidney disease for years. Gradual loss of kidney function is called chronic kidney disease (CKD) or chronic renal insufficiency. People with CKD may go on to develop permanent kidney failure. They also have a high risk of death from a stroke or heart attack.

End-stage Renal Disease

Total or nearly total and permanent kidney failure is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD). People with ESRD must undergo dialysis or transplantation to stay alive.

What are the signs of chronic kidney disease (CKD) ?

People in the early stages of CKD usually do not feel sick at all.

People whose kidney disease has gotten worse may

  • need to urinate more often or less often
  • feel tired
  • lose their appetite or experience nausea and vomiting
  • have swelling in their hands or feet
  • feel itchy or numb
  • get drowsy or have trouble concentrating
  • have darkened skin
  • have muscle cramps

What medical tests detect kidney disease ?

Because a person can have kidney disease without any symptoms, a doctor may first detect the condition through routine blood and urine tests. The National Kidney Foundation recommends three simple tests to screen for kidney disease: a blood pressure measurement, a spot check for protein or albumin in the urine, and a calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on a serum creatinine measurement. Measuring urea nitrogen in the blood provides additional information.

Blood Pressure Measurement

High blood pressure can lead to kidney disease. It can also be a sign that the kidneys are already impaired. The only way to know whether a person’s blood pressure is high is to have a health professional measure it with a blood pressure cuff. The result is expressed as two numbers. The top number, which is called the systolic pressure, represents the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart is beating. The bottom number, which is called the diastolic pressure, shows the pressure when the heart is resting between beats. A person’s blood pressure is considered normal if it stays below 120/80, stated as “120 over 80.” The NHLBI recommends that people with kidney disease use whatever therapy is necessary, including lifestyle changes and medicines, to keep their blood pressure below 130/80.

Microalbuminuria and Proteinuria

Healthy kidneys take wastes out of the blood but leave protein. Impaired kidneys may fail to separate a blood protein called albumin from the wastes. At first, only small amounts of albumin may leak into the urine, a condition known as microalbuminuria, a sign of deteriorating kidney function. As kidney function worsens, the amount of albumin and other proteins in the urine increases, and the condition is called proteinuria. A doctor may test for protein using a dipstick in a small sample of a person’s urine taken in the doctor’s office. The color of the dipstick indicates the presence or absence of proteinuria.

A more sensitive test for protein or albumin in the urine involves laboratory measurement and calculation of the protein-to-creatinine or albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Creatinine is a waste product in the blood created by the normal breakdown of muscle cells during activity. Healthy kidneys take creatinine out of the blood and put it into the urine to leave the body. When the kidneys are not working well, creatinine builds up in the blood.

The albumin-to-creatinine measurement should be used to detect kidney disease in people at high risk, especially those with diabetes or high blood pressure. If a person’s first laboratory test shows high levels of protein, another test should be done 1 to 2 weeks later. If the second test also shows high levels of protein, the person has persistent proteinuria and should have additional tests to evaluate kidney function.

Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) Based on Creatinine Measurement

GFR is a calculation of how efficiently the kidneys are filtering wastes from the blood. A traditional GFR calculation requires an injection into the bloodstream of a substance that is later measured in a 24-hour urine collection. Recently, scientists found they could calculate GFR without an injection or urine collection. The new calculation—the eGFR—requires only a measurement of the creatinine in a blood sample.

In a laboratory, a person’s blood is tested to see how many milligrams of creatinine are in one deciliter of blood (mg/dL). Creatinine levels in the blood can vary, and each laboratory has its own normal range, usually 0.6 to 1.2 mg/dL. A person whose creatinine level is only slightly above this range will probably not feel sick, but the elevation is a sign that the kidneys are not working at full strength. One formula for estimating kidney function equates a creatinine level of 1.7 mg/dL for most men and 1.4 mg/dL for most women to 50 percent of normal kidney function. But because creatinine values are so variable and can be affected by diet, a GFR calculation is more accurate for determining whether a person has reduced kidney function.

The eGFR calculation uses the patient’s creatinine measurement along with age and values assigned for sex and race. Some medical laboratories may make the eGFR calculation when a creatinine value is measured and include it on the lab report. The National Kidney Foundation has determined different stages of CKD based on the value of the eGFR. Dialysis or transplantation is needed when the eGFR is less than 15 milliliters per minute (mL/min).

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)

Blood carries protein to cells throughout the body. After the cells use the protein, the remaining waste product is returned to the blood as urea, a compound that contains nitrogen. Healthy kidneys take urea out of the blood and put it in the urine. If a person’s kidneys are not working well, the urea will stay in the blood.

A deciliter of normal blood contains 7 to 20 milligrams of urea. If a person’s BUN is more than 20 mg/dL, the kidneys may not be working at full strength. Other possible causes of an elevated BUN include dehydration and heart failure.

Additional Tests for Kidney Disease

If blood and urine tests indicate reduced kidney function, a doctor may recommend additional tests to help identify the cause of the problem.

Kidney imaging

Methods of kidney imaging—taking pictures of the kidneys—include ultrasound, computerized tomography (CT) scan, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These tools are most helpful in finding unusual growths or blockages to the flow of urine.

Kidney biopsy

A doctor may want to examine a tiny piece of kidney tissue with a microscope. To obtain this tissue sample, the doctor will perform a kidney biopsy—a hospital procedure in which the doctor inserts a needle through the patient’s skin into the back of the kidney. The needle retrieves a strand of tissue less than an inch long. For the procedure, the patient lies facedown on a table and receives a local anesthetic to numb the skin. The sample tissue will help the doctor identify problems at the cellular level.

What are the stages of CKD ?

A person’s eGFR is the best indicator of how well the kidneys are working. An eGFR of 90 or above is considered normal. A person whose eGFR stays below 60 for 3 months or longer has CKD. As kidney function declines, the risk of complications rises.

Moderate decrease in eGFR (30 to 59)

At this stage of CKD, hormones and minerals can be thrown out of balance, leading to anemia and weak bones. A health care provider can help prevent or treat these complications with medicines and advice about food choices.

Severe reduction in eGFR (15 to 29)

The patient should continue following the treatment for complications of CKD and learn as much as possible about the treatments for kidney failure. Each treatment requires preparation. Those who choose hemodialysis will need to have a procedure to make veins in their arms larger and stronger for repeated needle insertions. For peritoneal dialysis, one will need to have a catheter placed in the abdomen. A catheter is a thin, flexible tube used to fill the abdominal cavity with fluid. A person may want to ask family or friends to consider donating a kidney for transplantation.

Kidney failure (eGFR less than 15)

When the kidneys do not work well enough to maintain life, dialysis or a kidney transplant will be needed.

In addition to tracking eGFR, blood tests can show when substances in the blood are out of balance. If phosphorus or potassium levels start to climb, a blood test will prompt the health care provider to address these issues before they permanently affect the person’s health.

What can be done about CKD ?

Unfortunately, CKD often cannot be cured. But people in the early stages of CKD may be able to make their kidneys last longer by taking certain steps. They will also want to minimize the risks for heart attack and stroke because CKD patients are susceptible to these problems.

  • People with reduced kidney function should see their doctor regularly. The primary doctor may refer the patient to a nephrologist, a doctor who specializes in kidney disease.
  • People who have diabetes should watch their blood glucose levels closely to keep them under control. They should ask their health care provider about the latest in treatment.
  • People with reduced renal function should avoid pain pills that may make their kidney disease worse. They should check with their health care provider before taking any medicine.

Controlling Blood Pressure

People with reduced kidney function and high blood pressure should control their blood pressure with an ACE inhibitor or an ARB. Many people will require two or more types of medication to keep their blood pressure below 130/80. A diuretic is an important addition when the ACE inhibitor or ARB does not meet the blood pressure goal.

Changing the Diet

People with reduced kidney function need to be aware that some parts of a normal diet may speed their kidney failure.


Protein is important to the body. It helps the body repair muscles and fight disease. Protein comes mostly from meat but can also be found in eggs, milk, nuts, beans, and other foods. Healthy kidneys take wastes out of the blood but leave in the protein. Impaired kidneys may fail to separate the protein from the wastes.

Some doctors tell their kidney patients to limit the amount of protein they eat so the kidneys have less work to do. But a person cannot avoid protein entirely. People with CKD can work with a dietitian to create the right food plan.


Another problem that may be associated with kidney failure is high cholesterol. High levels of cholesterol in the blood may result from a high-fat diet.

Cholesterol can build up on the inside walls of blood vessels. The buildup makes pumping blood through the vessels harder for the heart and can cause heart attacks and strokes.


Sodium is a chemical found in salt and other foods. Sodium in the diet may raise a person’s blood pressure, so people with CKD should limit foods that contain high levels of sodium. High-sodium foods include canned or processed foods like frozen dinners and hot dogs.


Potassium is a mineral found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, potatoes, bananas, dried fruits, dried beans and peas, and nuts. Healthy kidneys measure potassium in the blood and remove excess amounts. Diseased kidneys may fail to remove excess potassium. With very poor kidney function, high potassium levels can affect the heart rhythm.

Not Smoking

Smoking not only increases the risk of kidney disease, but it also contributes to deaths from strokes and heart attacks in people with CKD.

Treating Anemia

Anemia is a condition in which the blood does not contain enough red blood cells. These cells are important because they carry oxygen throughout the body. A person who is anemic will feel tired and look pale. Healthy kidneys make the hormone EPO, which stimulates the bones to make red blood cells. Diseased kidneys may not make enough EPO. A person with CKD may need to take injections of a form of EPO.

Preparing for End-stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

As kidney disease progresses, a person needs to make several decisions. People in the later stages of CKD need to learn about their options for treating the last stages of kidney failure so they can make an informed choice between hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation

What happens if the kidneys fail completely ?

Total or nearly total and permanent kidney failure is called ESRD. If a person’s kidneys stop working completely, the body fills with extra water and waste products. This condition is called uremia. Hands or feet may swell. A person will feel tired and weak because the body needs clean blood to function properly.

Untreated uremia may lead to seizures or coma and will ultimately result in death. A person whose kidneys stop working completely will need to undergo dialysis or kidney transplantation.


The two major forms of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis uses a special filter called a dialyzer that functions as an artificial kidney to clean a person’s blood. The dialyzer is a canister connected to the hemodialysis machine. During treatment, the blood travels through tubes into the dialyzer, which filters out wastes, extra salt, and extra water. Then the cleaned blood flows through another set of tubes back into the body. The hemodialysis machine monitors blood flow and removes wastes from the dialyzer. Hemodialysis is usually performed at a dialysis center three times per week for 3 to 4 hours. A small but growing number of clinics offer home hemodialysis in addition to standard in-clinic treatments. The patient first learns to do treatments at the clinic, working with a dialysis nurse. Daily home hemodialysis is done 5 to 7 days per week for 2 to 3 hours at a time. Nocturnal dialysis can be performed for 8 hours at night while a person sleeps. Research as to which is the best method for dialysis is under way, but preliminary data indicate that daily dialysis schedules such as short daily dialysis or nocturnal dialysis may be the best form of dialysis therapy.

In peritoneal dialysis, a fluid called dialysis solution is put into the abdomen. This fluid captures the waste products from a person’s blood. After a few hours when the fluid is nearly saturated with wastes, the fluid is drained through a catheter. Then, a fresh bag of fluid is dripped into the abdomen to continue the cleansing process. Patients can perform peritoneal dialysis themselves. Patients using continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) change fluid four times a day. Another form of peritoneal dialysis, called continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), can be performed at night with a machine that drains and refills the abdomen automatically.


A donated kidney may come from an anonymous donor who has recently died or from a living person, usually a relative. The kidney must be a good match for the patient’s body. The more the new kidney is like the person receiving the kidney, the less likely the immune system is to reject it. The immune system protects a person from disease by attacking anything that is not recognized as a normal part of the body. So the immune system will attack a kidney that appears too “foreign.” The patient will take special drugs to help trick the immune system so it does not reject the transplanted kidney. Unless they are causing infection or high blood pressure, the diseased kidneys are left in place. Kidneys from living, related donors appear to be the best match for success, but kidneys from unrelated people also have a long survival rate. Patients approaching kidney failure should ask their doctor early about starting the process to receive a kidney transplant.

Points to Remember :

  • The kidneys are two vital organs that keep the blood clean and chemically balanced.
  • Kidney disease can be detected through a spot check for protein or albumin in the urine and a calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) based on a blood test.
  • The progression of kidney disease can be slowed, but it cannot always be reversed.
  • End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is the total or nearly total and permanent loss of kidney function.
  • Dialysis and transplantation can extend the lives of people with kidney failure.
  • Diabetes and high blood pressure are the two leading causes of kidney failure.
  • People with reduced kidney function should see their doctor regularly. Doctors who specialize in kidney disease are called nephrologists.
  • Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
  • People in the early stages of CKD may be able to save their remaining kidney function for many years by:

    • controlling their blood glucose
    • controlling their blood pressure
    • following a low-protein diet
    • maintaining healthy levels of cholesterol in the blood
    • taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)
    • not smoking

Hope through Research

As understanding of the causes of kidney failure increases, so does the ability to predict and prevent these diseases. Recent studies have shown that intensive control of diabetes and high blood pressure can prevent or delay the onset of kidney disease.

In the area of genetics, researchers supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) have located two genes that cause the most common form of PKD and learned that a person must have two defective copies of the PKD1 gene to develop PKD. Researchers have also found a gene in the roundworm that is identical to the PKD1 gene. This new knowledge will be used in the search for effective therapies to prevent or treat PKD.

In the area of transplantation, new drugs to help the body accept foreign tissue increase the likelihood that a transplanted kidney will survive and function properly. Scientists at the NIDDK are also developing new techniques to induce a person’s tolerance for foreign tissue before receiving a transplanted organ. This technique will eliminate or reduce the need for immunosuppressive drugs and thereby reduce expense and complications. In the future, scientists may develop an artificial kidney for implantation.